Insights from Historical Artwork

Another particularly bloody scene from the Maciejowski Bible.  On the top left a rider wielding a large war axe chops into the back of a rider whose horse has collapsed.    Several fighters on the far left show wounds to their head and arms but keep fighting.  The second panel below displays seven different weapons and a transitional shield style from "kite" to "heater".  Central is a lance penetrating a rider and knocking him back.  On the right another two-handed axe splits a helmet on a rider with wounds to the upper and lower arm. One rider shows his sword pulled all the way back in delivering a blow.  Interestingly, below on the far right a rider middle is shown escaping but with several major wounds.  Note the unique coloring and pattern on the helmets and the shield emblems.  On the ground lie a severed arm and a head, plus a dagger and lance in bodies.  Note how several figures are still actively fighting despite bleeding from various apparently light wounds.

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